Aged 65 and over, mature drivers (also referred to as older drivers) represent a growing segment of America's licensed drivers, but face an increased risk of traffic-related injuries and fatalities. In 2016, 6,702 fatal crashes involved drivers 65 and older.1
Older drivers are keeping their licenses longer and driving more miles than in the past, and in 2015, less than 1 percent of fatalities among people 70 and older were caused by motor vehicle crashes. However, fatal crash rates (per vehicle mile traveled) begin to increase significantly for those aged 70-74 and are highest among drivers 85 and above. This heightened risk is largely due to older drivers' increased vulnerability to injury, rather than a higher likelihood of getting into crashes.2
Mature drivers often face impairments in three functions that affect driving abilities: vision, cognition and motor function.
Adequate visual acuity and field of vision are critical for safe driving but tend to decline with age. Glare, impaired contrast sensitivity, and increased time needed to adjust to changes in light levels are problems commonly experienced by mature drivers.
Driving requires a variety of high-level cognitive skills, including memory, visual processing, attention and executive skills. Certain medical conditions (such as dementia) and medications that are common in the older population have a large impact on cognition.
- Motor Function
Motor abilities such as muscle strength, endurance and flexibility are necessary for operating vehicle controls and turning to view traffic. Even prior to driving, motor abilities are needed to enter the car safely and fasten the seat belt. Changes related to age and diseases such as arthritis can decrease an individual's ability to drive safely and comfortably.
Changes in vision, physical strength and cognition can contribute to a loss of self-confidence in the ability to operate a motor vehicle. However, losing one's drivers license is equated by some older adults as a loss of independence and personal freedom. Faced with this choice, some mature drivers risk personal injury rather than give up their license.
According to the American Medical Association, mature drivers have a higher risk of traffic fatalities not only because they tend to be involved in more motor vehicle crashes per mile driven than middle-aged drivers, but also because they are more physically fragile than their younger counterparts.
State motor vehicle and local law enforcement agencies have different perspectives on the risks of mature drivers. As the driving population ages, states are enacting legislation putting certain restrictions on drivers.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety has developed the website Driver Licensing Policies and Practices, which contains an online database of state driver licensing policies and practices affecting older and medically-at-risk drivers. This free resource also includes innovative programs that licensing officials, policymakers and others can use to address the needs of older and medically-at-risk drivers.
1 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2017, October). 2016 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview (Traffic Safety Facts Crash•Stats. Report No. DOT HS 812 456). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812456
2 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. "Older Drivers." December 2017. http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/older-drivers/fatalityfacts/older-people.